As I am getting more comfortable with film photography, it seems it helps me to write some experiences and thoughts down. I just wrote down the experience of taking a 4×5 view camera out for the first time. It is more than 7 months using mainly film and being able to touch every part of the process with my hands is more rewarding than digital so far…
You can read more about it at “Action in 4×5 bites”.
I could not remember when was the last time I loaded a roll of film into a camera. As time moves forward, I walk backwards. That is what I thought when I enrolled in the photography course series where film was king. I had to scramble to get a film camera. The good news, black and white. The bad news, film, chemicals, dark rooms, lots of papers, and huge amounts of time invested. So I have decided to star writing about it a bit. I just hope that eventually it will make sense.
I am writing these and more thoughts over at Medium.
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In this research, the design of a new genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced to detect the locations of license plate (LP) symbols. An adaptive threshold method is applied to overcome the dynamic changes of illumination conditions when converting the image into binary. Connected component analysis technique (CCAT) is used to detect candidate objects inside the unknown image. A scale-invariant geometric relationship matrix is introduced to model the layout of symbols in any LP that simplifies system adaptability when applied in different countries. Moreover, two new crossover operators, based on sorting, are introduced, which greatly improve the convergence speed of the system. Most of the CCAT problems, such as touching or broken bodies, are minimized by modifying the GA to perform partial match until reaching an acceptable fitness value. The system is implemented using MATLAB and various image samples are experimented with to verify the distinction of the proposed system. Encouraging results with 98.4% overall accuracy are reported for two different datasets having variability in orientation, scaling, plate location, illumination, and complex background. Examples of distorted plate images are successfully detected due to the independency on the shape, color, or location of the plate.
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Metaheuristic optimization procedures such as evolutionary algorithms are usually driven by an objective function that rates the quality of a candidate solution. However, it is not clear in practice whether an objective function adequately rewards intermediate solutions on the path to the global optimum and it may exhibit deceptiveness, epistasis, neutrality, ruggedness, and a lack of causality. In this paper, we introduce the frequency fitness H, subject to minimization, which rates how often solutions with the same objective value have been discovered so far. The ideas behind this method are that good solutions are difficult to find and that if an algorithm gets stuck at a local optimum, the frequency of the objective values of the surrounding solutions will increase over time, which will eventually allow it to leave that region again. We substitute a frequency fitness assignment process (FFA) for the objective function into several different optimization algorithms. We conduct a comprehensive set of experiments: the synthesis of algorithms with genetic programming (GP), the solution of MAX-3SAT problems with genetic algorithms, classification with Memetic Genetic Programming, and numerical optimization with a (1+1) Evolution Strategy, to verify the utility of FFA. Given that they have no access to the original objective function at all, it is surprising that for some problems (e.g., the algorithm synthesis task) the FFA-based algorithm variants perform significantly better. However, this cannot be guaranteed for all tested problems. Thus, we also analyze scenarios where algorithms using FFA do not perform better or perform even worse than with the original objective functions.
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This paper studies a challenging problem of dynamic scheduling in steelmaking-continuous casting (SCC) production. The problem is to re-optimize the assignment, sequencing, and timetable of a set of existing and new jobs among various production stages for the new environment when unforeseen changes occur in the production system. We model the problem considering the constraints of the practical technological requirements and the dynamic nature. To solve the SCC scheduling problem, we propose an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm with a real-coded matrix representation for each individual of the population, a two-step method for generating the initial population, and a new mutation strategy. To further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the solution process for dynamic use, an incremental mechanism is proposed to generate a new initial population for the DE whenever a real-time event arises, based on the final population in the last DE solution process. Computational experiments on randomly generated instances and the practical production data show that the proposed improved algorithm can obtain better solutions compared to other algorithms.
The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce a novel general estimation of distribution algorithm to deal with permutation-based optimization problems. The algorithm is based on the use of a probabilistic model for permutations called the generalized Mallows model. In order to prove the potential of the proposed algorithm, our second aim is to solve the permutation flowshop scheduling problem. A hybrid approach consisting of the new estimation of distribution algorithm and a variable neighborhood search is proposed. Conducted experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to outperform the state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, from the 220 benchmark instances tested, the proposed hybrid approach obtains new best known results in 152 cases. An in-depth study of the results suggests that the successful performance of the introduced approach is due to the ability of the generalized Mallows estimation of distribution algorithm to discover promising regions in the search space.
A scheduling policy strongly influences the performance of a manufacturing system. However, the design of an effective scheduling policy is complicated and time consuming due to the complexity of each scheduling decision, as well as the interactions among these decisions. This paper develops four new multi-objective genetic programming-based hyperheuristic (MO-GPHH) methods for automatic design of scheduling policies, including dispatching rules and due-date assignment rules in job shop environments. In addition to using three existing search strategies, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II, strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm 2, and harmonic distance-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, to develop new MO-GPHH methods, a new approach called diversified multi-objective cooperative evolution (DMOCC) is also proposed. The novelty of these MO-GPHH methods is that they are able to handle multiple scheduling decisions simultaneously. The experimental results show that the evolved Pareto fronts represent effective scheduling policies that can dominate scheduling policies from combinations of existing dispatching rules with dynamic/regression-based due-date assignment rules. The evolved scheduling policies also show dominating performance on unseen simulation scenarios with different shop settings. In addition, the uniformity of the scheduling policies obtained from the proposed method of DMOCC is better than those evolved by other evolutionary approaches.